This calculation neglects any shielding provided by the air, which can be significant. There are on the order of 200 stable nuclides and over 1100 unstable (radioactive) nuclides. The manual is provided for informational purposes only. It is designed to provide employees with a general summary description of WPI’s personnel policies, programs, and employee benefits. For a further discussion of air kerma see ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements) Report 33, 1980. Absorbed Dose This is the amount of energy imparted to matter, and the Rad has been the unit of measurement. The Committee’s estimated risks for males and females are similar.
There is an important difference in these measurements. The transferred energy is eventually dissipated as heat. The quality factors for radiations frequently encountered are: Radiation Q Gammas and X-rays 1 Beta particles & electrons 1 Alpha particles & fission fragments 20 Neutrons 10 The rem is a unit of dose equivalent. Other sources of ionizing radiation are: Secondary emissions and scattering from the sample, shielding material, and fluorescent screens.
Liquid radioactive waste includes the radioactive material and the first rinse of its experimental container. Keep your dosimeters away from radiation sources when not in use. Do not deliberately expose a dosimeter to radiation or wear your badge when receiving medical or dental x-rays. Do not tamper with the TLD packet or remove it from the holder. Alpha particles are easily stopped by a sheet of paper or the protective (dead) layers of skin. BETA PARTICLES Normally, a beta particle loses its energy in a large number of ionization and excitation events. One microcurie of P-32 in direct contact with 1 cm^2 of bare skin gives a dose rate to the skin of about 8 rem/hr. The photoelectric effect is one in which the photon imparts all its energy to an orbital electron.